by Marie Jett, CPA | Manager, Tax Services Group and Member of the Manufacturing & Distribution Services Group
In the last e-newsletter issue, we looked at the Health Care Bill and its affect on businesses. This time we are discussing the affect this legislation has on individuals and the many tax law changes this bill has brought about. Specifically we discuss the requirement that individuals have health insurance or face a penalty, tax credits to individuals, the increase in Medicare tax to wages, and the additional Medicare tax on investment income.
First, the new law contains an “individual mandate”, a requirement that U.S. citizens and legal residents have qualifying health coverage or be subject to a tax penalty. Under the new law, those without qualifying health coverage will pay a tax penalty of the greater of: (a) $695 per adult, per year, (up to a maximum of $2,085 per family), or (b) 2.5% of household income over the threshold amount of income required for income tax return filing. The penalty will be phased in according to the following schedule: $95 in 2014, $325 in 2015, and $695 in 2016 for the flat fee or 1.0% of taxable income in 2014, 2.0% of taxable income in 2015, and 2.5% of taxable income in 2016. Beginning after 2016, the penalty will be increased annually by a cost-of-living adjustment. Exemptions will be granted for financial hardship, religious objections, American Indians, those without coverage for less than three months, aliens not lawfully present in the U.S., incarcerated individuals, those for whom the lowest cost plan option exceeds 8% of household income, those with incomes below the tax filing threshold (in 2010 the threshold for taxpayers under age 65 is $9,350 for singles and $18,700 for couples), and those residing outside of the U.S.
Second, the centerpiece of the health care legislation is its provision of tax credits to low and middle income individuals and families for the purchase of health insurance. For tax years ending after 2013, the new law creates a refundable tax credit (the “premium assistance credit”) for eligible individuals and families who purchase health insurance through an Exchange. The premium assistance credit, which is refundable and payable in advance directly to the insurer, subsidizes the purchase of certain health insurance plans through an Exchange. Under the provision, an eligible individual enrolls in a plan offered through an Exchange and reports his or her income to the Exchange. Based on the information provided to the Exchange, the individual receives a premium assistance credit based on income and IRS pays the premium assistance credit amount directly to the insurance plan in which the individual is enrolled. The individual then pays to the plan in which he or she is enrolled the dollar difference between the premium assistance credit amount and the total premium charged for the plan. For employed individuals who purchase health insurance through an Exchange, the premium payments are made through payroll deductions.
The premium assistance credit will be available for individuals and families with incomes up to 400% of the federal poverty level ($43,320 for an individual or $88,200 for a family of four, using 2009 poverty level figures) that are not eligible for Medicaid, employer sponsored insurance, or other acceptable coverage. The credits will be available on a sliding scale basis. The amount of the credit will be based on the percentage of income the cost of premiums represents, rising from 2% of income for those at 100% of the federal poverty level for the family size involved to 9.5% of income for those at 400% of the federal poverty level for the family size involved.
Third, high-income taxpayers will be hit with a double whammy – a tax increase on wages and a new levy on investments. The Medicare payroll tax is the primary source of financing for Medicare’s hospital insurance trust fund, which pays hospital bills for beneficiaries who are 65 and older or disabled. Under current law, wages are subject to a 2.9% Medicare payroll tax. Workers and employers pay 1.45% each. Self-employed people pay both halves of the tax (but are allowed to deduct half of this amount for income tax purposes). Unlike the payroll tax for Social Security, which applies to earnings up to an annual ceiling ($106,800 for 2010), the Medicare tax is levied on all of a worker’s wages without limit.
Under the provisions of the new law, which takes effect in 2013, most taxpayers will continue to pay the 1.45% Medicare hospital insurance tax, but single people earning more than $200,000 and married couples earning more than $250,000 will be taxed at an additional 0.9% (2.35% in total) on the excess over those base amounts. Employers will collect the extra 0.9% on wages exceeding $200,000 just as they would withhold Medicare taxes and remit them to the IRS. Companies won’t be responsible for determining whether a worker’s combined income with his or her spouse makes them subject to the tax. Instead, some employees will have to remit additional Medicare taxes when they file income tax returns, and some will get a tax credit for amounts overpaid. Self-employed persons will pay 3.8% on earnings over the threshold. Married couples with combined incomes approaching $250,000 will have to keep tabs on both spouses’ pay to avoid an unexpected tax bill. It should also be noted that the $200,000/$250,000 thresholds are not indexed for inflation, so it is likely that more and more people will be subject to the higher taxes in coming years.
Under current law, the Medicare payroll tax only applies to wages. Beginning in 2013, a Medicare tax will, for the first time, be applied to investment income. A new 3.8% tax will be imposed on net investment income of single taxpayers with adjusted gross income (AGI) above $200,000 and joint filers with AGI over $250,000 (unindexed). Net investment income is interest, dividends, royalties, rents, gross income from a trade or business involving passive activities, and net gain from disposition of property (other than property held in a trade or business). Net investment income is reduced by allocable deductions to such income. However, the new tax won’t apply to income in tax-deferred retirement accounts such as 401(k) plans. Also, the new tax will apply only to income in excess of the $200,000/$250,000 thresholds. So if a couple earns $200,000 in wages and $100,000 in capital gains, $50,000 will be subject to the new tax. For an estate or trust, the tax is 3.8% of the lesser of: (1) undistributed net investment income or (2) the excess of AGI over the dollar amount at which the highest income tax bracket applicable to an estate or trust begins. Because the new tax on investment income won’t take effect for three years this leaves more time for Congress and IRS to tinker with it. So we can expect lots of refinements and “clarifications” between now and when the tax is actually rolled out in 2013.
Finally, there are several other tax law changes which are summarized by effective date as follows:
· Tax years beginning after December 31, 2010
- Availability of a new employee benefit cafeteria plan known as a Simple Cafeteria Plan. This plan will be subject to eased participation restrictions so that small businesses can provide tax-free benefits to their employees. The new cafeteria plans will include self-employed individuals as qualified employees.
- Over-the-counter drugs will be excluded from being reimbursed from a health reimbursement account (HRA), flexible savings accounts (FSAs), health savings account (HSA) or Archer Medical Savings Account (MSA).
- Distributions from an HSA or Archer MSA that are not used for qualified medical expenses will be subject to a 20% tax penalty
· Tax years beginning after December 31, 2012
- The itemized medical expense deduction limitation increases from 7.5% to 10% for most individuals. For individuals age 65 and older the 7.5% will remain unchanged through 2016.
- Contributions to health flexible savings accounts (FSA) will be capped at $2,500 per year and will be indexed for inflation after 2013.
- The deduction for the subsidy for employers who maintain prescription drug plans for their Medicare Part D eligible retirees will be eliminated.
As you can see this health care legislation has changed a number of tax laws for businesses and individuals. Our Tax Services Group is on top of these changes, so please give us a call at 317.241.2999 if you have any questions.